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Menampilkan postingan dari April, 2013

Life on a Desert Island

Most of us have formed an unrealistic picture of life on a desert island. We sometimes imagine a desrt island to be a short of paradise where the sun always shines. Life there is simple and good. Ripe fruit fall the tress and you never have to work. The other side of the picture is quite the opposite. Life on a desert island is wretched. You either starve to death or live like Robison Crusoe, waiting for a boat which never comes. Pergaps, there is an element of truth in both these pictures, but few of us have has the opportunity to find out.

Letter From My Brother

I have received a letter from my brother, Tim. He is Australia. He has been there for six months. Tim is an enginees. He is working for a big firm and he has already visited a great number of different places in Australia. He has just bought an Australian car and has gone to Alice Springs, a small town in the centre of Australian. He will soon visit Darwin. From there, ge will fly to Perth. My brother has never been abroad before, so he is finding this trip very exciting.

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Smash and Grab

The expensive shops in a famous arcade on Bourke Street were just opening. At this time of the morning, the arcade was almost empty. Mr.Taylor, the owner of a jewellery shop was admiring a new window display. Two of his assistants had been working busily since 8 o'clock and had only just finished. Diamond neacklaces and rings had been beautifully arranged on a background of black velvet. After gazing at the display for several minutes, My Taylor went back to into the shop.

Waiting at the Airport

When I got to the airport, I learnt that the plane from Cairo, on which my brother was travelling, had been delayed at Paris with engine trouble. It was expected to be about an hour late. As rule I can pass the time quite happily, watching the planes land and take off. But that evening i had a headache, which i thought that the noise of the engines might make worse. I decided, therefore, to walk around to make the time pass quikly.

The Longest Words

Despite calims put forward for other words, the longest word in most English dictionaries is still "antidisestablismentarianism". It has twenty-eight letters and refers to the doctrine that an established church should maintain the status as the official church of a country. The longest word in the Oxford English Dictionary is "floccinaucinihilipilification", twenty-nine letters.    However, the Guiness Book of Records states that the protein tryophan synthetase has a full name which requires 1913 letters. The word "supercalifragilisticexpialidocious", thirty-four letters does not exist at all and was invented for use in Mary Poppins (which probably means that it does exist now). The comedian Red Skelton is credited with discovering the world's longest word. He said it was the one that follows, "And now a word from our sponsors".

Beautiful Ring

Who has the last say?

Some people are always saying that they don't built cars as they used to be. What nonsense! I walked round the beautiful new Ferrari again, admiring its lines, when my thoughts were rudely interrupted. "Will you be here long?" a voice asked sharply. "I haven't made up my mind yet," I said, loolking up at a sour-faced traffic warden. "Well, you can't stop here," he told me "Who says so?" I asked him cheekily. "I said so," he said to me. "It says here," he added, "in case you can't read. "No, waiting"." "You read very well. Go to the top of the class! I told him, "but I'll make my own decisions." "oh, will you?" the traffic warden asked. "Then so will I and I've decided to give you a ticket, " he said to me with relish as he began filling out a form. "Go, ahead,"I told him."This car doesn't belong to me anyway. I wish it did!"

This Charming Property

People who tell truth about the properties which they are selling should be given prizes for honesty. A house which is described as "spacious" will be found to be too large. Words like "enchanting", "delightful", "convenient", "attractive" that are commonly used all mean "small". The words "samll" and "picturesque" which are not so frequently used both mean "too small". A "picturesque house" is one with a bedroom which is too small to put a bed in and a kitchen that is too small to boil an egg in.     My prize for honesty goes to someone who recently described a house that he was selling in the following way: "This house that is situated in a very rough area of London is really in need of repair. The house which has a terrible lounge and a tiny dining room also has tree miserable bedrooms and a bathroom that is fitted with a leaky shower. The central heating which is expensive t…

From Laughter, the Best Medicine

The departement-store customer asked a salesperson where the flash-light batteries were. "I'll see," the employee replied, and he slipped around a corner. After 15 minutes of waiting, the shopper found another salesperson and asked her where he could get the batteries. "I'll see," the secound employee said, then disappeared. Unable to get any assistance, the frustrated shopper went to the manager's office. "Everybody here gives me the run around," he exclaimed. "All i want to know is where i can find the flashlifht batteries." The customer stormed out in a rage at the manager's reply: "Aisle C"

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How the Other Half Lives

Lord Manners was a rich and famous banker. When he died, he was given a magnificent funeral which was attended by hundreds of famous people. The funeral was going to be held in Westminster Abbey. Many ordinary people lined the streets to watch the procession. The wonderful black and gold carriage was drawn by six black horses. The mourners followed in silence. Lord Manners was given a royal farewell. Two tramps were among the crowd. They watched the procession with amazement. As solemn music could be heard in the distance, one of them turned to the other and whisper in admiration, "Now that's what I call really living!"

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The Mystery of the Talking Shoe

Tracy Evans didn't have to be at work till ten, so she ignored her alarm clock. But she woke up with a start when she heard a stange sound coming from her wardrobe. What was it? It must have been a mouse, Tracy thought. No, it can't have been. She knew there were no mice in her room. I must be careful, Tracy said to herself as she opened the wardrobe. There, in front or her, was the lovely pair of wedge-shaped sandals she had bought the day before. Then she heard the sound again. "It must be Coming from my sandals!" she cried. She picked them up and, sure enough, one of them was "talking". Tracy had to be at work at ten, but she still had enough tome to visit Mr.Lucas, her shoemaker. He removed the wooden heel and they were both amazed to see a white larva eating the wood. Mr.Pope, of the Natural History Museum, solved the mystery. "These shoes must have been imported from brazil. An insect must have laid its eggs in the tree from which the shoes …

Formulas of Compounds

A compound is a distinct substance that is composed of the atoms of two or more elements and always contains exactly the same relative masses of those elements. In light of Dalton's atomic theory, this statement simply means that a compound always contains the same relative numbers of atoms of each element. Foe example, water always contains two hydrogen atoms for each oxygen atom. The types of atoms and the number of each type in a each unit (molecule) of a given compound are conveniently expressed by a chemical formula.  In a chemical formula, the atoms are indicated by the element symbols and the number of each type of atom is indicated by a subscript, a number that appears tothe right of and below the symbol for the element.   The formula for water is written H2O, indicating that each molecule of water contains two atoms of hydrogen and one atom of oxygen (the subscript 1 is always understood and not written).

Dalton's Atomic Theory

John Dalton, an English scientist and teacher, was aware of these observations. In the early 1800s, he offered an explanation for them that became known as Dalton atomic theory. The main ideas of this theory (model) can be stated as foolows: Elements are made of tiny particles called atoms.All atoms of a given element are identical.The atoms og a given element are different from those of any other element.Atoms of one element can combine with atoms of other elements to form compounds. A given compound always has the relative numbers and types of atoms.Atoms are indivible in chemical processes. That is, atoms are not created or destroyed in chemical reactions. A chemical reaction simply changes the way the atoms are grouped together.

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Just as hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon can from the compounds carbon dioxide and water, atoms of the same type can also combine with one another to form molecules. For example, hydrogen atoms can pair up, as can oxygen atoms. For reasons we will consider later, carbon atoms form much large groups, leading to substances such as diamond, graphite, and buckminsterfullerene.

    Because pure hydrogen and oxygen each contains only one type of atom, the substances are called elemental substances or, more commonly, elements. Elements are substances that contain only one kind of atom; a sample of iron contains many atoms, but they are all iron atoms. Samples of certain pure elements do contain molecules; for example, hydrogen gas contains H-H (usually wrrittrn H2) molecules, and oxygen gas contains O-O (O2) molecules. However, any pure sample of an element contains only atoms of that element, never any atoms of any other element.

Pure Substances

Whereas a mixture has variable composition, a pure substance always has the same composition. Pure substances are either elements or compounds. For example, pure water is a compound containing individual H2O molecules. However, as we find it in nature, liquid water always contains other substances in addition to pure water-it is a mixture. This is obvious from the different tastes, smells, ans colors or water samples obtained from various sources (such as oceans, lakes, rivers, and the earth's interior), we always end up with the same pure substance-water, which is made up of only H2O molecules.    Pure water always has the same physical and chemical properties and always consists of molecules containing hydrogen and oxygen in exactly the same proportions, regardless of the original source of water. The proporties of a pure substances make it possible to identify that substance conclusively.


The stuff of which the universe is composed, has two characteristics: it has mass and it occupies space. Matter comes in a great variety of forms: the stars, the air that you are breathing, the gasoline that you put in your car, the chair on which you are sitting, the turkey in the sandwich you may have eaten for lunch, the tissues in your brain that allow you to read and understand this sentence, and so on.    As we lokk around our world, we are impressed by the great diversity of matter. Given the many forms and types of matter, it seems difficult to believe that all matter is composed of a small number of fundamental particles. It is surprising that the fundamental building blocks in chocolate cake are very similar to the components of air.



In much the same way that we can use a few letters to make thousands of words, we can use a few types of atoms to construct all matter. For example, consider the atoms hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon,   Notice that we represent atoms by using spheres. We get this idea from the highly magnified pictures of metals that show the atoms.   We can combine the hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon atoms in a variety of ways. Just as letters combine to form different words, atoms combine to form different compounds. Compounds are substances made by bonding atoms together in specific ways.        These substances contain two or more different types of atoms bound together in a particular way. A specific compound consists of the same particles thoroughout.   Consider a glass of water. If you could magically travel inside the water and examine its individual parts, you would see particles consisting of two hydrogen atoms bounded to an oxygen atom.    We call this particle a molecule. A molecule is made up of…

Top Ten Reasons For Taking Chemistry

Do experiments using fire and chemicals.Learn to answer chemistry questions on game shows.Learn to solve problems.See cool demonstrations in class.Learn to use and dispose of household chemicals safely.WWear fashionable lab aprons and goggles.Learn to think like a scientist.Impress your friends by using words like molarity and stoichiometry.Find a practial use for the math you've been learning.Meet the most interesting people the people who teach it.

What Is Chemistry

Chemistry can be defined as the science that deals with the materials of the universe and the changes that these materials undergo. Chemusts are involved in activities as diverse as examining the fundamental particles of matter, looking for molecules in space, making new materials of all types, using bacteria to produce such chemicals as insulin, ans finding new metods for early detection of desease. Chemistry is often called the central science-and with good reason. Most of the phenomena that occur in the world around us involve chemical changes-changes in which one or more substances become different substance. Here are some examples of chemical changes:
Wood burns in air, forming water, carbon dioxide, and other substances.A plant grows by assembling simple substances into more complex substances.The steel in a car rusts.Eggs, flour, sugar, and baking poeder are mixed and baked to yield a cake.The definition of the term chemistry is learned and stored in the brain.Emissions from a pow…

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Checking Employee Schedules

It is a most curious thing that so often people are late merely because they have not allowed themselves enough time. As an example, a supervisor would ask Jane Smith how much time she felt she need to reach the company from her home, and Jane would say 40 minutes. The supervisor would then inquire as to her allowences for transportation, breakfast, washing, dressing, makeup, etc. And when it was all totaled, it would be 5 or 10 minutes more than the time Jane was allowing from the moment of her arising. She was obviously grtting up too late and needed to be shown this fact, uilizing her own figures.

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The Process of Photosynthesis

It has long beer known that when exposed to light under suitable conditions of temperature and moisture, the green parts of plents use carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and release oxygen to it. These exchanges are the opposite of those that occur in respiration. The process is called photoshynthesis. In photosynthesis, carbonhydrates are synthesized from carbon dioxide and water by the chloroplasts of plant cells in the presence of light. In most plants, the water used in photosynthesis is absorbed from the soil by the roots and translocated through the stomates. Oxygen is the product of the reaction. For each molecule of carbon dioxide used, one molecule of oxygen is released.


Absenteeism is often the first overt indication of impending turnover. When an employee becomes dissatisfied, it is easy for him to take time off on the pretext of illness and use the time to either seek other employment or just loaf, while his company pays him.     Most of the factors which cause excessive absenteeism also create high turnover.These include poor selection, inadequate supervision, substandard wages, hours, or working conditions, lack of promotional opportunuties, insecurity, underutilization of skills, and poor personnel policies.     If turnover rates are high, they will never decrease without the definitive corrective action of management. For management to be able to do this intelligently, it is fundamental to have the facts available as to the reasons for excerssive turnover. When the fact are analyzed and evaluated, remedial action can be undertaken.

Computing Turnover

The method of computing the turnover rate is similar to that of derermining the absenteeism rate-the number of separations is divided by the number employed at the pay period nearest the middle of the month, and the resultant fraction is convered to a precentage. For exsample, if there are 1.000 employess and there are 20 separations during yhe month, the rate for that month is 20/1000, or 2 percent.      In order to ascertain how is stands, a company should merely compare ist figures with those of the Bureau of Labor Statistics, or the Commerce and Industry Association. it is also helpful to secure figures from similar business in the same area, if they are available.       It is well to note that high turnover rates will also increase unemployement insurance tax rates and very probably accident insurance rates, since accident tend to increase as turnover increases.

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Planning The Agenda

The conference leader has the responsibility for guiding the conferees throughout the discussion until the point that he is able to crystallize all opinions toward a rational final decision. His primary control of the entire process is his agenda, which provides the framework for discussion. This must be carefully thought out, and copies must be circulated in advance of the meeting so that participants have the opportunity to prepare themselves for the discussion. It should limit the scope of the discussion and allow for the orderly development of thought to successive phases of the topic under discussion, whitout giving the appearance of excessive rigidity.

Role Of The Conference Leader

It cannot be taken for granted that merely arranging for an assemblage of knowledgeable people in an appropriate place within a given time span will produce effective results. Regardless of the quality of the individual participants and their skill in articulation, the ultimate success of most conferences will be related to the effectiveness of the conference leader. It is his responsibility not only to arrange for all the physical appurtenances of the conference, but also to ameliorate conflict, abrasion, and disagreement, while effectively intergrating a variety of points of view toward the desired goals of the conference. When it happpens that a leader becomes aware of his inabily to cope with problems precipitated by overly animated interaction, he shies away from encouraging participation to an increasing extent, thus sharply reducing the value of the conference.

Activities As Morale Builders

The manner in which the supervisor deals with each subordinate is of the greatest importance and far outweighs all the other fringe benefits which may be granted to create job satisfaction and high morale. However, effective utilization of a veriety of activities can materially augment the favorable employee attitude created by the compentent supervisor. The following are repprensentative of those in current use.

Service awardsCompany CafetariaChristmas PartyBulletin BoardsSportsOutingsTournamentsDancesChess and BridgePhoto ContestSuggestion SystemAducational RefundsGroup Health An InsuranceSpecial Benefit For Some GroupToursCompany Housing And Cooperative StoresCompany LibrariesIn-plant Music

The Worker's Status

It seems obvious that many of today's fundamental management principles were understood and practiced far back in history, althought with different terminology. The major change over the centuris has been in the status of the worker, and the evolution is still in process. He has risen from a role of total servitude to one of considerable status, with a large measure of economic freedom.       By today's standards, the lot of the worker during the Middle Ages (about A.D 400 to 1400) can only be called grim. His goal was that of sustaining life, in which he was often unsuccessful. The possibility of any improvement of his lot would hardly even have entered his mind, and all his efforts had to be directed to maintaining a bare level of subsistence.

Training For New Employees

Although several aspects of training are the responsibility of the personel department or other staff department, a major part of the training in basic skill remains a most important function of the line supervisor. To do his job effectively, he must be aware of techniques to facilitate learning as well as details of the learning process itself. The sucsess or failure of a training program is directly related to intelligent application of the principles of learning.      Since individuals differ in backgrounds, aptitudes, and interests, the supervisor must adapt his procedures to match indiviual needs. This necessitates awareness of the fact that not all people learn at the same pace and that some cannot learn at all in certain areas. Differences in individual motivation are also to be found: some are eager to face a challenge, while others are petrified by a fear of failure or ineptitude. In sum, both aptitude and motivation in adequate amounts muast be present in order to achieve …

Definition Of Terms

To disignate the function of personnel administration, the terms "industrial relation" and "labor relation" are sometimes used interchangeably with it, although the differences should be noted. In a large organization, the title "vice-president, industrial relation" or "director of industrial relations" will be given to an executive who is an expert in both labor relations and personnel administration. He may have reporting to him a labor relations manager and a personnel manager. A major part of his duties is to represent or assist top management in negotiations with one or more unions. The term "labor relations" refers only to the relations between management and unionized labor, including contract negotiation and the usual workaday relations ships with shop stewards and business agents.

Maron 5 - She Will be Loved

Beauty queen of only eighteen
She had some trouble with herself He was always there to help her She always belonged to someone else
I drove for miles and miles
And wound up at your door I’ve had you so many times but somehow I want more
I don’t mind spending everyday
Out on your corner in the pouring rain Look for the girl with the broken smile Ask her if she wants to stay awhile And she will be loved She will be loved
Tap on my window knock on my door
I want to make you feel beautiful I know I tend to get so insecure It doesn’t matter anymore
It’s not always rainbows and butterflies
It’s compromise that moves us along, yeah My heart is full and my door’s always open You can come anytime you want
I don’t mind spending everyday
Out on your corner in the pouring rain Look for the girl with the broken smile Ask her if she wants to stay awhile And she will be loved And she will be loved And she will be loved And she will be loved
I know where you hide
Alone in your car Know all of the things that make you who you are

Maron 5- One more Night

You and I go hard at each other like we're going to war.
You and I go rough, we keep throwing things and slamming 
the door.
You and I get so damn dysfunctional, we stopped keeping 
You and I get sick, yeah, I know that we can't do this no 

But baby there you go again, there you go again, making me
 love you.
Yeah, I stopped using my head, using my head, let it all go.
Got you stuck on my body, on my body, like a tattoo.
And now I'm feeling stupid, feeling stupid, crawling b
ack to you.

So I cross my heart and I hope to die
That I'll only stay with you one more night
And I know I said it a million times
But I'll only stay with you one more night